In part I, we examined the size and design elements of future manned spacecraft. Now we will look at the need for gravity aboard manned spacecraft, and how we might go about achieving artificial gravity in deep space.
In his seminal television series Cosmos, the late Dr. Carl Sagan drew a comparison between the Atlantic Ocean that stood in the way of explorers such as Columbus centuries ago and the limits of outer space as we came to know them in the 20th century.
George W. Bush’s (“Bush Jr.’s”) two-term presidency and his national space policy were largely shaped by two tragic events: the terrorist attacks in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001, and the disintegration of the Columbia space shuttle in 2003.
The United States National Space Policy is the product of the federal government’s effort to set the direction for the national space program. Throughout the history of the American space program, an evolution in space policy — and the process that creates it — has occurred.
The new Cosmic Vision mission agenda – guided by the new European Space Policy – groups astrophysics, fundamental physics, and solar system exploration missions into small class, medium class, and large class missions.
Given that the vast majority of the Horizon 2000 missions were successful and far exceeded their originally intended lifespans, the ESA reconvened in 1994, 10 years after the original Horizon 2000 planning.